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FAQ Questions Answers with Short Notes | Question answer with Difference Between Notes

रविवार, जनवरी 24, 2021

FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is a computer? Write its major parts.
Answer: A computer is an electronic machine that accepts the data and instructions from the user, process the data and instructions from the given set of instructions, stores and gives the information.
The major parts of computer are: monitor, keyboard, mouse, CPU etc.
2.       Why is computer called Information Processing Machine?
Answer: Computer is an electronic machine which generates information by providing raw data according to the prescribed sequence of instructions. It can also store the data and information for future use. So, it is called information processing machine.
3.       Mention any four characteristics of computer.
Answer: Four characteristics of computer are as follows:
a.       High speed
b.      Accuracy
c.       Diligence
d.      Versatility

4.       Write the use of computer in the field of education.
Answer: The use of computer in the field of education are as follows:
a.       Teacher can teach effectively by using computer based presentation.
b.      CBT and WBT are the aid to teach the students in the classroom.
c.       Student can study different subjects and complete their assignments by using different software in computer.
d.      Different universities also provides online and distance learning education system.

5.       What is meant by versality in terms of features of computer.
Answer: Versality in term of features of computer means that it is flexible, multitalented or all-rounder. Computer is able to perform a number of different tasks efficiently and without slowing down in various fields.
6.       List any four application fields of a computer.
Answer: Four application fields of a computer are as follows:
a.       Education
b.      Health care
c.       Banking
d.      Entertainment

7.       What are the limitations of a computer? List in points.
Answer: The limitations of a computer are as follows:
a.       It has no intelligence of its own.
b.      It can’t change its processing steps itself.
c.       It has no feelings.
d.      It can’t learn from past experience.

8.       List the abilities that every computer performs.
Answer: The abilities that every computer performs are as follows:
a.       Accept the data and instructions from the user.
b.      Process the data according to the given set of instructions.
c.       Give the result of its processing for the user.
d.      Store the result permanently according to the requirement of the user.

9.       Explain the phrase "Garbage - In – Garbage - Out .
Answer: The result produced by a computer is totally dependent on the data given by the user. If input data is incorrect then the output will be incorrect or undesirably. In computer terminology, it is called “Garbage – In – Garbage – Out”.
10.   Why are computers called diligent and versatile machines?
Answer: Computer can perform repetitive task without feeling bored so it is a diligent machine. In the same way, the computer is able to perform a number of different tasks efficiently and without slowing down in various fields. So, it is called versatile machine.
11.   Represent the measuring unit of computer in terms of fraction of second.
Answer:
Unit of Time
Meaning
Milliseconds (ms)
One thousandth of a second
Microsecond (us)
One millionth of a second
Nanosecond (ns)
One billionth of a second
Picosecond (ps)
One trillionth of a second.


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.       Who is considered as father of computer science?
Answer: Charles Babbage is known as the father of computer.
2.       Who is known as the first computer programmer? Why?
Answer: Lady Augusta Ada Lovelace is known as the first computer programmer because she suggested Charles Babbage to use binary number system for programs and data to be fed into the Analytical Engine.
3.       What is meant by computer generations?
Answer: The period, during which the evolution of computer took place, can be divided into five distinct phases known as Generation of Computers.
4.       Write down the main components used in different computer generations.
Answer: the main components used in different computer generations are as follows:
a.       First generation: Vacuum tubes
b.      Second generation: Transistors
c.       Third generation: Integrated Circuits (ICs)
d.      Fourth generation: Microprocessors
e.      Fifth generation: Artificial intelligence

5.       Which was the first electromechanical computer? Write its features.
Answer: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was the first electromechanical computer.
6.       Write the contribution of Hem-ran Hollerith for the development of modern computer.
Answer: Hem-ran Hollerith invented Tabulating machine in 1889. The tabulating machine was developed to help process data for the 1890 U.S. Census. In 1896 Herman Hollerith established the tabulating machine company. In 1924 the tabulating machine company merged with other companies and formed the International Business Machine (IBM) Corporation. It is one of the leading computer manufacturing companies in the world.
7.       Mention the features of the first generation computers.
Answer: The features of the first generation computer are as follows:
a.       They were very large in size
b.      They were very slow
c.       They used vacuum tubes as memory device.
d.      They consumed a lot of electrical power.

8.       What are advantages of the second generation computers over the first generation computers?
Answer: The advantages of the second generation computers over the first generation computers are as follows:
a.       Second generation computers were smaller than the first generation of computer.
b.      Second generation computers were faster than first generation of computers.
c.       Second generation computers consumed less electrical power than the first generation.

9.   List the new concepts that are being introduced in the fifth generation computers.
Answer: The new concept that are being introduced in the fifth generation computer is to develop computer that respond to natural language input able to think and take self-decisions.

SHORT NOTES

1.       Abacus: It was the first manual calculating device in the world which was developed by Chinese people.
2.       Artificial Intelligence: It is the technique and software that enables computer to mimic human behavior in many ways. Artificial intelligence is the science of making machines that imitate human thinking and behavior.

3.       Analytical Engine: Analytical Engine was the first general purpose full programmable mechanical machine, developed by Charles Babbage in 1837. 


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is computer system?
Answer: The computer along with various hardware units and software that makes the computer work is known as computer system.
2.       List the main unit of computer system.
Answer: The main unit of computer system are as follows:
a.       Input unit
b.      Processing Unit
c.       Output Unit
d.      Storage Unit

3.       De?ne data and user with example.
Answer: Data are the unarranged or unprocessed raw facts and figures which may give or may not give much sense or meaning to the user. Data are represented by sign, symbol, number or alphabets.
Person who operates the computer are known as users.
4.       What is CPU? List its main sections.
Answer: The Central Processing Unit is a special chip that controls what happens in a Pc. It fetches instructions and does high speed computations on data. It is the main part (brain) of computer. Components of CUP are as follows:
a.       Memory unit: It is a part of CUP where all given instructions, data and the results are stored during processing period.
b.      Control Unit: It control all operational components like input, processing and output
c.       Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU) : The primary task of the ALU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations of the program. All the data from the memory directs by control unit gets loaded in ALU.

5.       Write the function of CU?
Answer: The function of Control Unit are as follows:
a.        It performs the data processing operations.
b.       It gives commands to transfer data from input device to the memory
c.        It transfers the result from ALI to memory
d.       It stored program in the memory
e.       It fetches the required instruction from the main storage.
6.       What is input device? Write with examples.
Answer: An input device is any hardware device that sends data to a computer, allowing you to interact with and control it. Mouse, Keyboard, scanner, joystick, teletype writer are some example of input devices.
7.       What is output device? Write with examples.
Answer: An output device is any peripheral that receives data from a computer, usually for display, projection, or physical reproduction. Printer, Monitor, Speaker, plotter, Projector are some example of output device.
8.       What is memory unit? Write its functions.
Answer: It is a part of CUP where all given instructions, data and the results are stored during processing period.
9.       What is secondary memory? Write few examples.
Answer: Secondary memory is where programs and data are kept on a long-term basis. Common secondary storage devices are the hard disk and optical disks. Example: Hard disk, Pen drive, DVD etc.
10.   Write the memory measurement units.
Answer:  Kilo Byte (KB), Mega Byte (MB), Gigs Byte (GB) and Tera Byte (TB) are the Memory measurement units.
  

SHORT NOTES


1. Arithmetic Logic Unit: The primary task of the ALU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations of the program. All the data from the memory directs by control unit gets loaded in ALU.

2. Primary Memory: Primary memory is a computer system's volatile storage mechanism. It may be random access memory (RAM), cache memory or data buses, but is primarily associated with RAM.

 3. Secondary Memory: It is the supplements of main memory. It is mainly used to transfer data or program from one computer to another computer. It also functions as back up devices which allows backing up the valuable information.

4. Control Unit: It is a unit which controls the entire system of computer. That unit directs all operations inside the computer.

5. ALU: The primary task of the ALU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations of the program. All the data from the memory directs by control unit gets loaded in ALU.

6. Memory System: It is a part of CUP where all given instructions, data and the results are stored during processing period.

7. Input Unit: For receiving data and instructions, input unit is used. It accepts the data and instructions given by the user and it converts the data and instructions to machine readable code.

8. Measurement unit of memory: Kilo Byte (KB), Mega Byte (MB), Gigs Byte (GB) and Tera Byte (TB) are the Memory measurement units.

9. Output Unit: It is the unit from which all the results are given out by output devices. there are two types of output and soft output.

10. Hard Output: Hard output is the output printed on paper.
  

DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN


Input device and output device.
Input devices
Output devices
They are used to input data.
They are used to provide the result.
They convert data into computer understandable form.
They convert data into human understandable form.
Example: Keyboard, Mouse etc.
Example: Monitor, printer etc.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is computer hardware? List its examples.
Answer: The physical parts used in the computer system which can be seen, touched and felt are known as computer hardware. CPU, Monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer etc are some example of computer hardware.
2.       Write the main function of input unit.
Answer: The main function of input unit is to enter data and instructions or commands into the computer.
3.       What is memory? What is the major classification of computer memory?
Answer: The devices that are used to store the data and program instructions either temporarily or permanently is called memory. The major classifications of computer memory are as follows:
a.       Primary memory
b.      Secondary memory

4.       What is primary memory? What are its types?
Answer: The primary memory is the main memory or internal memory of the computer. Types of primary memory are as follows:
a.       RAM (Random Access Memory)
b.      ROM (Read Only Memory)

5.       What is secondary storage? What are its types?
Answer: The storage devices are also called secondary storage. The memory which store data and program instruction permanently is called secondary storage. The types of secondary storage are as follows:
a.       Sequential storage devices
b.      Magnetic storage devices
c.       Optical storage devices

6.       What are magnetic disks? Write with examples.
Answer: A magnetic disk is a storage device that uses a magnetization process to write, rewrite and access data. It is covered with a magnetic coating and stores data in the form of tracks, spots and sectors. Hard disks, zip disks and floppy disks are common examples of magnetic disks.
7.       What is optical storage? Write with example.
Answer: Optical storage is the type of storage in which the information on the optical disk is stored in the form of pits and lands. For example: CD, DVD etc.
8.       What are the advantages of hard disk over floppy disk?
Answer: The advantages of hard disk over floppy disk are as follows:
a.       Large storage capacity.
b.      Stores and retrieves data much faster than floppy disk.
c.       It can be replaced and upgraded as necessary.
d.      More durable and reliable than floppy disk.

9.       What are soft copy output and hard copy output device?
Answer: The output displayed on the monitor’s screen in the form of text, graphics, video and sound is called software output.
The devices that produce output print on the paper are called hardcopy output devices.
10.   What is printer? What are its types?
Answer: Printer is the most popular and commonly used hard copy output device which prints the output on the paper. Types of printers are as follows:
a.       Impact printer
b.      Non-impact printer.

11.   Why does a computer need primary memory?
Answer: A computer needs primary memory to store data and program instructions during processing so that CPU can quickly read/write data and program instructions.
12.   Why does a computer need secondary storage?
Answer: A computer needs secondary storage to store data and program instructions permanently for the future use.
13.   What is monitor? Write its types.
Answer: Monitor is a soft output device. It displays the graphics on the screen. CRT monitor, LCD monitor, LED monitors are the three types of monitor.
14.   What is printer? Explain about impact and non-impact printer.
Answer: Printer is the common hard output device. It is used to print result on paper.
Impact Printer prints the character like a typewriters which characters are printed by physical striking over an inked ribbon. It is slow and poor quality printer.
Non-impact printer prints the character using heat, light and ink spray technique. It is faster than impact printer and it's quality is good.
15.   What is plotter? Write its use.
Answer: Plotter is an output device. It's uses are prints engineering drawing charts and graphics. It prints high quality drawing and graphics.
16.   What is MoDem? Write its use.
Answer: MoDem is Modulator and Demodulator that converts analog to digital signal and vice-varsa.
  

SHORT NOTES

1.       Mother board: It is the main circuit board of a micro computer. It connects almost all of the other parts together in a computer. It is also known by different names such as the main board, PCB or system board.

2.       Modem: It stands for modulator and demodulator. It is a communication device also known as I/O device which converts analog signals to digital signals and vice-versa for making communication possible.

3.       Plotter: It is a kind of output device which gives hard copy output. It is used to produce a hard copy of larger graphs and designs on paper.

4.       Digital camera: It is a camera that takes video or photo inputs to the computer in digital format. Most of the camera we use today are digital.

5.       Cache memory: It is an extremely fast small memory between CPU and main memory whose access time is closer to the processing speed of CPU.

6.       MICR: It is a character recognition system that uses special ink and characters. MIRC technology is used by banks. Numbers and characters found on the bottom of checks are pointed using magnetic ink.

7.       Pen drive: It is the most popular used magnetic storage device also known as flash drive or USB or Thumb drive. It is small in size and can be carried in pocket like a pen so it is named as pen drive.

8.       Cloud storage: Cloud storage means “the storage of data online in the cloud” wherein a company’s data are stored in and accessible from multiple distributed and connected resources that comprise a cloud.

9.       Mouse: Mouse is an input device with two or three button, It is an pointing device which allows user to click (select).

10.   Touch Pad: Touch pad is a modern and advance technology applied in wrist watch, camera, pager, etc. It is a screen with touch sensitive points or program icon.

11.   Light pen: Light pen is an input pointing device used to draw diagram on VDU (Visual Display Unit) directly. It is connected to VDU.

12.   Hard disk: Hard disk is secondary storage device. These are made up with a set of rigid metal diskettes which is permanently sealed in a metal case for air-tight.

13.   CD-ROM: The storage capacity of the disk is 660 MB. These are not reusable disk because we can record the information only one time and can read many times.

14.   DVD ROM: It is very versatile and capable to store a full-length movie on a single disk. it uses both sides of the disk. Each DVD can store upto 9.4 GB of data.

15.   Joypad: The Joypad is designed for gaming input. In many ways it is identical to the joystick, with the main difference being the use of a multi-directional touch pad in place of the stick.

16.   Joystick: Joystick is also a pointing device. It is mainly used interaction with computer games. It consists of a lever or stick, which is moved by the user and transmits these movements to the computer.

17.   Scanner: It is an input device, used to enter pictures, graphs and other documents in computer and allows to save data in different formats.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN


1.       ROM and RAM.
RAM
ROM
It is a temporary memory.
It is a permanent memory.
It is read/write memory.
It is read only memory.
It is fixed in the memory card slot on the motherboard.
It is attached with the motherboard.
It is working memory of computer.
It is startup memory of the computer which stores the startup information.
2.       SRAM and DRAM
SRAM
DRAM
It is made up of transistors.
Memory cells are made up of small tiny capacitors.
It is less dense.
It is dense in nature.
It is much faster than DRAM
It is slower than SRAM
It is more expensive than DRAM
It is cheaper than SRAM
3.       Impact and Non Impact printers.
Impact printers
Non-Impact printers
These printer hit inked object while printing.
These printers heat inked objects (tonner) while printing.
They produce sound while printing.
They do not produce sound while printing.
They produce low quality output.
They produce high quality output.
They are cheaper than non-impact printer.
They are more expensive than impact printers.
4.       LCD monitor and CRT monitor.
LCD monitor
CRT monitor
LCD monitor contains Liquid crystal display.
CRT monitor contains cathode-ray tube.
It is small in size in than to CRT.
It is big in size.
It consumes less power than CRT.
It consumer more power.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.       How are computers classified into different types?
Answer: On the basic of purpose, size, capacity and data types that the computer operates, they are broadly categorized.
2.       What are general purpose computers and special purpose computers?
Answer: The computers which can perform more than one task are called general purpose computer.
The computers which can perform only single task are called special purpose computers.
3.       What are the broad classifications of computer on the basis of work (Function?)
Answer: The broad classifications of computer on the basis of work are as follows:
a.       General purpose computers
b.      Special purpose computers

4.       How are digital computers classified on different types?
Answer: On the basis of size and performance digital computer can be classified into the following four types:
a.       Micro computer
b.      Mini computer
c.       Main frame computer
d.      Super computer

5.       What are super computers? What is its application in real life situation?
Answer: Super computer are the most powerful computers in the world which can process large amount of data and solve the complicated scientific problems. Its applications are as follows:
a.       Weather forecasting
b.      Aircraft design
c.       Online banking
d.      Nuclear energy restrial units
e.      To control industrial units.

6.       What are mainframe computers? Where are they mainly used for?
Answer: Mainframe computers are more powerful than mini computers, large in size, have higher processing speed, large storage capacity and expensive than mini computers. They are used in large organizations such as banks, airlines etc. where many users need frequent access to same data.
7.       What are different types of micro computers?
Answer: The different types of micro computers are as follows:
a.       Desktop computer
b.      Handheld computer
c.       Laptop computer

8.       What are digital computers?
Answer: Computer that works with digital value 0 and 1 are digital computers.
9.       Write the application area of mini computers.
Answer: University, middle range business organizations, scientific research, engineering analysis, etc are some application area of mini computers.
10.   What are IBM compatible computers?
Answer: IBM compatible computer system is assembled from different components developed by different companies. It is based on IBM principle that can use standard hardware and software designed for the IBM PC and its own additional features.
11.   Write short note about AT and XT model of computer.
Answer: AT supports GUI based operating system and its speed is 2 G Hz. XT cannot support GUI based operating system and its processing speed is 4.77 M Hz.
12.   Write the features of super computer.
Answer: The features of super computers are as follows:
a.       It can solve problems in nano seconds
b.      Multi user
c.       Multi processing
d.      Large amount of data storage.

13.   Define laptop computer.
Answer: Laptop are small sized digital computer so it is also called handheld computer. It is portable.
  

SHORT NOTES

1.       Analog Computers: Analog computer is one that measures physical values such as temperature or pressure that fall along a continuous scale in temperature or pressure.

2.       Special purpose computers: Special purpose computers are designed to facilitate special activities like measurement of height, research and development, science lab, etc.

3.       PS/2 Computers: It is a laptop computer with rechargeable and battery based system. It is operated with OS/2 operating system.

4.       PDA: Small sized portable hand - held electronic device which has all the features of personal computer called PDA.

5.       Super Computer: Super computer are fastest, most expensive, big in size and most powerful computer that can perform multitask within no second. It has Multi-user, multi processing, very high efficiency and large amount of storage capacity.
  

DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN

1.       Analog and digital computers.
Analog computer
Digital computer
Analog computers process continuous data.
Digital computers process discontinuous data.
They are special purpose computers.
They are general purpose computers.
They are based on analog mechanism
They are based on discrete mechanism.
2.       Mini computers and micro computers.
Mini computer
Micro computer
They are large in size.
They are small in size.
Many users can use it at a time.
Only one user can use it at a time.
These computers are mainly used as server.
These computer are mainly used at office and home.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.       What is a number system?
Answer: A number system is the set of symbols used to express quantities as the basis of counting, determining order, comparing amount, performing calculations, and representing value.
2.       What is decimal number system? Who developed this number system?
Answer: The number system that uses base or radix as 10 us called decimal number system. The digits used are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.
3.       What is octal number system? Write its base value.
Answer: The number system that uses base or radix as 8 is called octal number system. The digits used are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.
4.       What is binary number system? What are the digits used by binary number system.
Answer: The number system that uses base or radix as 2 is called binary number system. 0 and 1 are two digits used by binary number system.
5.       What is hexadecimal number system?
Answer: The number system that uses base or radix as 16 is called hexadecimal number system.
6.       Can you convert decimal to octal number? How can you convert?
Answer: Yes we can convert decimal to octal number. The steps are as follows:
a.       Divide the decimal number by base 8.
b.      Record the quotient and remainder separately.
c.       Divide the quotient by 8. This process ie repeated till the quotient becomes zero.
d.      When the remainders are written in reverse order then we have an octal equivalent of the given decimal number.

7.       Write the rules for binary additions.
Answer: The rules for binary additions are as follows:
a.       0 + 0 = 0
b.      0 + 1 = 1
c.       1 + 0 = 1
d.      1 + 1 = 0 (it is not “ten” but “zero one”) write “0” here and carry “1”
8.       Write the rules for binary subtractions.
Answer: The rules for binary subtraction are as follows:
a.       0 - 0 = 0
b.      1 - 0 = 1
c.       1 - 1 = 0
d.      0 - 1 = 1 (with borrow 1 from the left column)
9.       Write the steps to convert from binary to hexadecimal numbers.
Answer: The steps to convert from binary to hexadecimal numbers are as follows:
a.       Divide the binary digits into a group of 4 starting from the least significant bit.
b.      Convert each group of 4 digits into one hexadecimal digit according to conversion table.
c.       The result obtained is the equivalent hexadecimal number of the given binary number system.

DEFINE

1.       Bit: It stands for binary digits which is the smallest unit of representing number system in computer. Each digit of 0 or 1 is called bit i.e. power ON/OFF.

2.       Word: A word in number representation of computer system is the collection of 16 bits or 32 bits. It is also the number of bits that a computer processes and transfers data at a time.

3.       ASCII: It stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is one of the common and universal code for binary representation used by the computers for their work.

4.       BCD: It stands for Binary Coded Decimal. It is another binary representation code that represents the decimal digits 0 to 9 corresponding 4 bits binary numbers.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN


1.       Positional and non-positional number system
Positional number system
Non-positional number system
In positional number system, each symbol represents different value depending on the position they occupy in a number.
In non-positional number system, each symbol represents the same value regardless of its position.
In positional number system, each system has a value that relates to the number directly next to it. The total value of a positional number is the total of the resultant value of all positions.
In non-positional number system, each symbol represents a number with its own place value.

Example: 12 can be 1 x 10 + 2 x 1, 10 + 2 = 12.
Example: Roman number system where I for 1, II for 2 etc.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.       What are the social impacts of computer?
Answer: The social impacts of computers are as follows:
a.       Positive impact
b.      Negative impact

2.       Write any four positive impacts of computer in the society.
Answer: Four positive impacts of computer in the society are as follows:
a.       The work can be done in very less time.
b.      Error free result
c.       Documents can be kept secret
d.      Impartiality

3.       List the negative impacts of computer in the society.
Answer: The negative impacts of computer in the society are as follows:
a.       Highly Expensive
b.      Data privacy
c.       Huge data and information can be lost sometimes.
d.      Increased unemployment.

4.       How does a computer impact on individual life?
Answer: Computer has impacted both positively and negatively on individual life as the use of computer helps to complete the work faster and efficient helps to keep the documents secret, provided error free result, multi processing capabilities etc where as impacts negatively in sense that it effects on health and increases environmental problems, cyber crimes and dependency.
5.       How does computer impact upon education?
Answer: The education sector is arguably one major area that computers are playing remarkable role. Teachers are computers for making students report, for audio visual classes, for students daily records and students computer their assignments and presentation with the help of computer.
6.       Explain the impacts of computer in the field of employment.
Answer: In the field of employment, computer are used to keep financial records and transactions for making assignments and necessary documents for maintain to check the quality of products and for other business transactions.
7.       How does computer impact on entertainment?
Answer: Computer is playing very important role to entertainment the people. We can play game on computer by using different game software. We can also listen music while we work on the computer.
8.       How does computer affect on younger generation negatively?
Answer: Many people especially children and teenagers have become addicted to mobile phones and computer. Children are continuously using computer and are at risk of learning about different types of drugs and are learning the new culture by looking unwanted things on internet.
9.       Explain the roles of computers in banks.
Answer: In the banking sector, customers, business person and bank administrator get benefits from the usage of computer Bank administrator use computers to control the entire banking system including reconciliations, inter-branch transaction etc.
10.   What type of frauds can happen through the computer?
Answer: Cyber crime such as hacking, pornography, password cracking etc are the frauds that can happen through the computer.
11.   Write the impacts of computer on business.
Answer: Business use the computers to facilitate production planning and control system, to support chain management and to handle the business transactions. It is also used to check the quality and accuracy of products.
12.   Write the role and use of computer in Health sector?
Answer: In the health sector, computers are used in laboratories, pharmacy, research, scanning, monitoring etc. In hospital, computers are used in the different medical units such as ICU, ECG operation theater etc. Computers are helping the doctors to diagnose and are used for many other purposes.
13.   What is data?
Answer: Data is defined as facts or figures, or information that's stored in or used by a computer.
14.   What is information?
Answer: Collected fact, knowledge and data about any subject is called information.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.       What is meant by Information Technology (IT)?
Answer: It is the modern technology of computer science which includes fast communication from one place of world to another place.
2.       Why is IT policy required for Nepal like developing countries?
Answer: IT policy is required for Nepal like developing countries to evaluate the current three years interim plan so as to examine the policies developed by concerned authorities to create the suitable environment to develop and extend in the field of information technology.
3.       What is an information technology policy?
Answer: It is the policy or procedure formulated by the government of Nepal to organize develop and implement IT fields systematically in government and private sectors.
4.       List the two aspects which are well considered while making the current plan for Information Technology 2067.
Answer: They are as follows:
a.       Creation of job opportunities for the economical development with the productive use of information technology.
b.      Use as the strong medium for the overall development of social economic, administrative and other sectors.

5.       What is the main vision of IT policy of Nepal 2067?
Answer: To place Nepal on the globe map of IT and transform knowledge based society.
6.       Write any four objectives of IT policy of Nepal 2067?
Answer: Four objectives of IT policy on Nepal 2067 are as follows:
a.       To declare IT sector as primary area of government and make it behavioral.
b.      To achieve international help and get development in information technology.
c.       To increase productive use of information technology in social, economic and business institutions.
d.      To make public information and services inclusive and effective as per electoral government policy.

7.       What are the action plans and strategies that are to be carried out to fulfill the objective of IT policy of Nepal 2067?
Answer: The action plans and strategies that are to be carried out to fulfill the objective of IT policy of Nepal 2067 are as follows:
a.       Continuation will be given to update the national index related to information technology.
b.      It will be minimized for the dependency of international bandwidth for sharing the news.
c.       The electrical transaction Act (ETA) will be implemented effectively and revised with the need of time.
d.      E-government Master Plan will be effectively implemented.

8.       How is "Observation and evaluation committee" formed?
Answer: “Observation and evaluation committee” is formed under the coordinator ship by the secretary of Ministry of science and Technology.
9.       Mention any four polices of information technology policy of Nepal 2067.
Answer: Four policies of information technology policy on Nepal 2067 are as follows:
a.       Government plans and policies will be strongly implemented with the behavioral use of IT.
b.      Specific opportunities will be created to have the accessibility of information technology.
c.       Information technology will be localize and encouraged to use in local language.
d.      The protection of intellectual property right related to information technology will be made effective.

10.   What are the amendment provisions to the IT policy of Nepal 2067?
Answer: IT policy may be reviewed and amendment every two years in conformity with technological development & expansion of devices as a result of raged development in the information technology sector. Non the les at the suggestion of various sectors, it may be appraised and amendment necessary even prior it.
11.   What is the main mission of IT policy of Nepal 2067?
Answer: The main mission of IT policy of Nepal 2067 is to achieve good governance, minimize poverty along with socio-economic promotion by the proper use of IT in Nepal.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.       What is E-Governance? Write any two advantages of E-Governance.
Answer: E-Governance is the government that uses information and communication technology to provide and improve government services. Two advantages of E-Governance are as follows:
a.       It facilities better delivery of government services to citizens.
b.      It facilitates the better communications between governments and businesses.

2.       What are the objectives of E-Government?
Answer: The objectives of E-Government are as follows:
a.       To develop the paperless working system.
b.      To improve the working system of bureaucracy.
c.       To provide a better trade environment.
d.      To provide online services to the customers.

3.       What are the major transformation areas of E-Governance?
Answer: The major transformation areas of E-Governance are as follows:
a.       Internal Work Area.
b.      External Work Area.

4.       Differentiate between internal work area and external work area of E-Government.
Answer:
Internal work area
External work area
It refers to the use of ICT to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of internal functions and processes of government by interrelating different departments and agencies.
Providing all the information and services to the citizens and organizations through the electronic media is known as the external work are of E-Government.
Computers are mostly used for result processing, preparing educational materials, preparing and sending e-mall, etc.
Through the websites we can download different forms and submit them online.
5.       What type of service is G2C in E-Governance?
Answer: G2C in E-Governance provides the efficient public services and effective interaction between the citizen and government.
6.       Define Government to Business (G2B) system.
Answer: G2B system is the system in e-governance that deals with regulation and how to empower industry to work cooperatively with government, even creating joint activities such as public private partnership (PPPs)
7.       Write short note about E-Government in Nepal.
Answer: The MOST has recently installed a VSAT to give Internet connections and develop government network between the government Ministries and Departments. The NITDC and NITCC are responsible for making IT plan and strategy in Nepal. CAN was established in December 1992 AD. More than 1000 private training Institutes exist in operation but the quality and standard varies drastically. Telephone service is available to all the headquarters to 77 districts. Average Internet connection speed available to consumer is 33.6kbps to 56kbps.
8.       What is Government to Government system?
Answer: G2G system is a system in E-Government which deals with a range of issues, from how citizens cannot with the government to improve the process within the government, thereby reducing costs, increasing productivity and creating new services etc.
9.       Distinguish between local level service of G2G & international Level service of G2G.
Answer:
local level service
international Level service
G2G services are transactions between the central and local government and between department level and attached agencies and bureaus.
G2G service are transactions between governments, and can be used as an instrument of international relations and diplomacy.
10.   What are different phases of E-government services?
Answer: The phases of E-Government services are as follows:
a.       Information
b.      Interaction
c.       Transaction
d.      Transformation

11.   Write the different types of E-Government services.
Answer: The different types of E-Government services are as follows:
a.       Government – to – Citizen (G2C)
b.      Government – to – Business (G2B)
c.       Government – to – Employee (G2E)
d.      Government – to – Government (G2G)

12.   What are the disadvantages of E-Government?
Answer: The disadvantages of E-Government are as follows:
a.       It is expensive to move the government services into an electronic based system.
b.      This system loses the person-to-person, interaction, which is valued by many people.

13.   What are the five steps that make e-government happen?
Answer: The five steps that make e-government happen are as follows:
a.       Develop a vision.
b.      Conduct an e-readiness assessment.
c.       Identify realistic goals.
d.      Get the bureaucracy to buy-in and develop a change management strategy.
e.      Build public-private partnerships.


SHORT NOTES



Government – to – Employee: It is the online non-commercial interaction between government organization and the government employees.

FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.       What is an Operating System? Write two examples.
Answer: An operating system is a kind of system software that controls and co-ordinates the overall operations of the computer system. For example: Ms-Dos, Linux etc.
2.       Write any two functions of operating system.
Answer: Two functions of operating system are as follows:
Managing Resources: OS co-ordinates with all the computer resources including the keyboard, printer etc.
Running Applications: Most OS support multitasking or the ability to run more than application at a time.
3.       What are the different types of Operating System?
Answer: The different types of operating system are as follows:
Single User Operating System: In a single user operating system one user can effectively use a computer at a time.
Multi User Operating System: Multi user OS allows concurrent access by multiple users of computer.
4.       What is Ms-DOS? Write down its features.
Answer: Ms-DOS is a command user interface (CUI) based operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation in 1981 AD. The features of MS-DOS are as follows:
a.       It is single user and single task operating system.
b.      It supports hard disk, floppy disk and compact disk.
c.       It manages file in hierarchical order.
d.      It provides command user interface (CUI)

5.       What is meant by booting?
Answer: The process of loading system file into computer memory from disk is called booting.
6.       What are wildcards? Give some examples of wildcard characters.
Answer: The wildcards are the special symbols that can be used represent any other character in command statement. Example: *, ?, :, / etc.
7.       What is dialog box? Write different elements of dialog box.
Answer: A dialog box is a kind of window which appears temporarily to inform a user about some messages or ask the user to provide some information for carrying out commands.
8.       What is Windows Explorer? Write its use.
Answer: Windows Explorer is very useful feature of windows, that allows to efficiently manage all files and folder in the computer.
9.   What is Recycle bin? Write its importance.
Answer: The Recycle Bin is a special folder which contains deleted files and folders from the hard disk.
10.   What is Icon? How can we arrange Icon on the Desktop?
Answer: The small picture buttons that represents commands, programs, files or folders are called icons.
11.   What is the use of Start Button in Windows?
Answer: The use of Start button in windows to display different menus, we can open different programs from these menus.
12.   What is the use of windows task manager feature?
Answer: We can stop not responding opened programs by using windows task manager feature.
13.   Write any five function of Operating system.
Answer: The functions of operating system are as follows:
1.       Process management
a.       Code execution
b.      Multitasking
2.       Memory management
c.       Allocation
d.      Sharing
3.       Device management
e.      Input/Output
f.        Disk access

14.   What is booting. Write its types.
Answer: Process of loading the system files on the temporary memory of computer to become ready to work is called booting. There are two types of booting: Warm booting and Cool booting.
15.   For what search and libraries used?
Answer: Search is used to easily scan for the documents, music, pictures and email that you need. Libraries allows user to organize files in one place, so they are easy to search and access.
16.   What are Gadgets? Name of gadgets of windows.
Answer: Gadgets are program that run on desktop so that you can see information very easily Windows has several built-in gadgets. Calendar, Date & Time, CPU meter, Picture Puzzle, etc. are some gadgets of windows.
17.   Define password. Write down the steps to protect user account with password.
Answer: Password is a secret word or phrase that prevents the computer system from the unauthorized access.
  

SHORT NOTES

1.       Start button:  It is the main button on the computer desktop which is located at the left of the taskbar.

2.       Taskbar: It is the horizontal bar located at the bottom of the windows.

3.       Commands: Command is the instruction given to the computer system to perform certain work. There are two types of commands Internal and External commands.

4.       Desktop: Desktop is the first screen that appears when you operate a computer with a Windows OS.

5.       Icon: Icon is an image that is displayed in Windows desktop. Network icon, volume icon, computer, recycle bin are some examples of icon.

6.       File and directory: The collection of data is called file. It has specific memory location represented by name which is called file name.

7.       Desktop Background: The desktop background lies behind all of the other components on your visible desktop. The desktop background is an active component of the user interface.

8.       Screen Saver: A screen saver is a computer program that blanks the screen or fills it with moving images or patterns when the computer is not in use.

9.       Control Panel: The Control Panel is a component of Windows that provides the ability to view and change system settings. It consists of a set of applets that include adding or removing hardware and software, etc.
  

DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN


1.       CUI and GUI operating system
CUI operating system
GUI operating system
We have to type commands in a prompt and the computer executes them
We can give commands to the computer by clicking on icon, menu buttons by using mouse.
It is hard to operate computer with CUI rather than GUI.
Example: Ms-DOS, Novel etc
It is very easy to operate computer with GUI rather than CUI.
Example: Windows Xp, Windows 7 etc.

2.       Internal and external DOS commands
Internal DOS commands
external DOS commands
They are loaded to the computer memory during the time of booting.
They are loaded in the memory only if they are used.
These are called memory resident commands.
Example: CLS, DATE, TIME etc.
These are called non-memory resident commands.
Example: TREE, SYS etc.

3.       Cold boot and Warm boot
Warm boot
Cold boot
If we restart computer using restart button, then the system restarts with warm booting.
If we shutdown the computer properly and switch off the main power supply or UPS then we will start using cool booting.
Warm booting is less better than cold boot.
A cold boot is better because it completes boot up sequence.

4.       File and directory
File
directory
A file is a systematic collection of related data or information or program instructions.
It is the location to store files and sub directories.
The name can have maximum eight characters long and extension can have 3 characters long.
The directory name can be maximum 260 character long



FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is HTML? Write its importance in the Internet.
Answer: HTML is the standard markup language used to create web pages.
Its importance in internet is for layout and format of text, pictures, graphics, sound and movie clips in the webpage by using HTML tags.
2.       What is URL? Give some examples of URL.
Answer: URL is the address of a webpage or website on the internet. Its example are www.facebook.com, www.google.com etc.
3.       What is webpage? How does it differ from web site?
Answer: A webpage is a document that is connected to the World Wide Web. Webpage is only one webpage and website is the collection of webpage.
4.       What is hyperlink? Write its importance.
Answer: Hyperlink is a special link which allows connecting to the HTML document in many ways.
Its importance is that it helps to connect one website to another website, objects like images, sound and video using hyperlink.
5.       What is browser? Give example of any two browsers.
Answer: A special type of software needed to access resources on internet is called browser. Example: Google Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer etc.
6.       What are the HTML tags and attributes?
Answer: HTML tags are the keywords or command used in HTML. Attributes is the additional information to describe the content of tags.
7.       Write the general rules for writing HTML tags and attributes
Answer: The general rules of writing HTML tags and attributes are as follows:
a.       Tags are surrounded by angle brackets like <HTML>
b.      The ending tag should have forward slash </HTML> before the tag name. The end tag does not have any attributes.
c.       The tags are not case sensitive.
d.      Space is not allowed at beginning or at between the tag name.

8.       What is container tag? List any four container tags.
Answer: The HTML tags which have the corresponding end or closing tags are known as container tags. Four container tags are as follows:
a.       <HTML>
b.      <Head>
c.       <Title>
d.      <Body>

9.       What is empty tag? List any four empty tags.
Answer: The tags which have no end tags are called empty tag. Example: <IMG>, <BR>, <HR>, <H1> etc.
10.   What is the use of table tag in HTML document?
Answer: The use of table tag is HTML document is to organize data in tabular form.
11.   What is the use of MARQUEE tag?
Answer: The use of MARQUEE tag is to inset a scrolling text in a HTML tag. It allows creating an eye catching and attractive movement of text or image in browser Screen.
12.   Define web site.
Answer: Web site is the collection of web pages by addressing with unique location and name. It includes information about organization using multi web pages.
13.   Define Internet.
Answer: International network that link various networks throughout the world is called Internet. It is also termed as the network of networks on  global form.
14.   What is protocol?
Answer: The standard set of rules and regulations that controls and defines the network structure is called the protocol.
15.   Write the skeleton of HTML structure.
Answer:  <HTML>
<HEAD> <TITLE> ………………… </TITLE> </HEAD>
<BODY>
…………………………….
</BODY>
</HTML>
16.   List any five HTML tags to apply the text formatting.
Answer: Five HTML tags to apply the text formatting are as follows:
1.       <H1> Text </H1>
2.       <B> Text </B>
3.       <P> Text </P>
4.       <I> Text </I>
5.       <U> Text </U>

FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       De?ne program and programming.
Answer: A finite sequence of instructions that a computer follows to solve a particular problem is called a program.
Programming is the process of designing, coding, testing, debugging and maintaining the source code of programs.
2.       What is computer programming language? List its types.
Answer: The artificial language that are used to develop computer program are called programming language. Computer programming languages are broadly categorized into two types they are:
a.       Low level language.
b.      High level language.

3.       What is low level language? Write its types.
Answer: A low-level language is a programming language that deals with a computer's hardware components and constraints. It has no (or only a minute level of) abstraction in reference to a computer and works to manage a computer's operational semantics. Its types are:
a.       Machine level language
b.      Assembly language.

4.       What is machine level language?
Answer: Machine level language does not require any translations because it can directly be understood by the computer.
5.       What is an assembly language?
Answer: Assembly level language is a low level language similar to machine level language but it uses some high level words called mnemonic code.
6.       What is high level language?
Answer: High level language contains a set of instructions closer to English language. Some mathematical symbols such as +,-,* etc. This language is oriented towards the problem and procedures.
7.       Write the advantages of High level language.
Answer: The common features of High level language are as follows:
a.       It is easy to understand.
b.      It takes less time to write program.
c.       It reduces the size of program.
d.      It is easy to debug the program.

8.       List any four common High level programming languages?
Answer: Four common High level programming languages are as follows:
a.       BASIC
b.      C
c.       C++
d.      JAVA

9.       What is 4GL?
Answer: 4GL (4th Generation language) is a High level language in which fewer instruction codes ar used to accomplish a particular task. It is non-procedural language. 4GL are database oriented programming languages. Example: DBASE, FOXPRO, SQL etc.
10.   List various stages of Software Development Cycle.
Answer: The various stages of Software Development Cycle are as follows:
a.       Problem Identification
b.      System Analysis
c.       System Design
d.      System Implementation
e.      System evaluation and Testing
f.        System Modification

11.   Write any two advantages & any two disadvantage of High Level Language.
Advantages
Disadvantages
Simple English is uses for program coding.
It requires a translator.
Problem and procedure oriented.
The execution of program is slower than machine code.
It requires less time for program coding.
The conversion time is slower than assembly language because it is entirely written on human language.
12.   Write advantages and disadvantage of assembly language.
Advantages
Disadvantages
Coding is faster than machine code language
Machine oriented language.
Less time consumed respect to machine code language.
Good knowledge of machine architecture is required.
Debugging is easy.
Not fast as machine code language in case of execution.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is program? Write its importance in the computer.
Answer: A finite sequence of instructions that a computer follows to solve a particular problem is called a program. It’s important are as follows:
a.       It helps to speed up the input and output process in a machine.
b.      It helps to create software and applications that helps computer and mobile users in daily life.
c.       It is important to automate, collect, manage, calculate, and analyze processing of data accurately.

2.       Define programming tools? Give examples of programming tools.
Answer: The tools used while writing programs which help to communicate the step for solving problem are called programming tools. For example: Algorithm, Flowchart, Pseudo code etc.
3.       What is an algorithm? Write any two characteristics of good algorithm.
Answer: An algorithm is a specific set of instructions or rules for carrying out a procedure or solving a particular problem. Two characteristics of good algorithm are as follows:
a.       An algorithm should have finite number of steps.
b.      The steps used in algorithm can be easily modified.

4.       What is a ?owchart? Write any two advantages of ?owchart.
Answer: A flowchart is a graphic or symbolic representation of an algorithm that standard symbols and checks the flow of logic running through it. Two advantages of flowchart are as follows:
a.       With the help of flowchart, problems can be analyzed in more effective way.
b.      Flowchart serves as a guide for program coding.

5.       Write the rules for preparing ?owchart.
Answer: The rules of preparing flowchart are as follows:
a.       There should be the Start and End point in every flowchart.
b.      The title should be given for every flowchart.
c.       The flowlines in the flowchart should not cross each other.

6.       What is command?
Answer: Command is the instruction given to the computer system to perform certain work. There are two types of commands Internal and External commands.
7.       What is looping?

Answer: A logic that is used to execute statements a block for a number of times without recording them is called looping.

FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is QBASIC programming language?
Answer: QBASIC is the most popular high level programming language developed by Microsoft Corporation, USA in 1985 AD.
2.       Why QBASIC called an interpreter?
Answer: QBASIC is called an interpreter because it converts one statement of a program into machine code at a time.
3.       Write the features of QBASIC language.
Answer: The features of QBASIC language are as follows:
a.       QBASIC interprets a statement of a program at a time to CPU.
b.      It allows us to break lengthy programs into modules.
c.       It doesn’t use technical terminology to write statement.
d.      It keeps the same variable name used in a program to identical from.

4.       What is the extension of QBASIC program file?
Answer: The extension of QBASIC program file is .BAS.
5.       What is meant by running a program? Which key is used to run a program?
Answer: Executing the program is called running a program.
F5 key is used to run a program.
6.       What is variable?
Answer: A variable is a name of storage location in the computer’s memory, in which we can store different values.
7.       What are operators? Write its types.
Answer: Operators are the symbols and operands may be a variable or constant used to perform various operations. Types of operators are as follows:
a.       Arithmetic expressions
b.      Relation expressions
c.       Logical expressions

8.       Write the use of logical and mathematical operators.
Answer: Logical operators are used to connect two or more relations and return a TRUE or FALSE value to be used in a decision.
Mathematical operation performs mathematical work using =,-,* etc.
9.       What is keyword?
Answer: Each programming languages has some predefined words or commands which perform special task in the program are called keywords.
10.   What is the difference between immediate Window and view window?
Answer: The difference between immediate window and view window are as follows:
Immediate Window
View Window
It is a small area.
It is a large area.
It’s function key is F6 to switch from program window.
It’s function key is F5 to run the program.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is the QBASIC character set?
Answer: The set of characters that are allowed to use in QBASIC is known as the QBASIC character set.
2.       What is a keyword? Give some examples of QBASIC keywords.
Answer: Each programming language has some pre-defined words or commands which performs specific task in the program are called keywords. Example: CLS, PRINT, INPUT etc.
3.       What is a variable? What are the classifications of variable in QBASIC?
Answer: A variable is a name of storage location in the computer’s memory in which you can store values. The classifications of variable in QBASIC are as follows:
a.       Numeric variable.
b.      String Variable.

4.       What is a numeric variable? Write its types.
Answer: A variable that stores numeric data is called numeric variable. It’s types are as follows:
a.       Integer Numeric Variable
b.      Long-integer Numeric Variable
c.       Single-Precision Numeric Variable
d.      Double-Precision Numeric Variable

5.       What is a string variable? Give some examples.
Answer: A variable that stores string data is called string variable. Example: AB$, XY$, Address$, Name$ etc.
6.       Mention the rule for naming a variable.
Answer: The rules for naming a variable are as follows:
a.       The variable name shouldn’t contain special character.
b.      The variable name may be up to 40 characters long.
c.       Blank space is not allowed in between the variable name.
d.      The keyword can’t be used as a variable name.
7.       What is a constant? Write its types.
Answer: Constant is the value or entity used to perform and that is unchangeable value in the program. Its types are as follows:
a.       Numeric
b.      String
c.       Symbolic

8.       What is numeric constant? List the different types of numeric constant.
Answer: Numeric constant are the positive or negative numbers and decimal points. Different types of numeric constant are as follows:
a.       Integer.
b.      Long integer.
c.       Single Precision.
d.      Double Precision.

9.       What is a string constant? Give some examples.
Answer: A string constant is a set of alpha numeric characters. Example: “Nepal”, “Hello! How are you” etc.
10.   What is symbolic constant? Which statement is used for this purpose?
Answer: Symbolic constant is the fixed value in the variable assigned so that value doesn’t change during execution of program.
The constant statement is used for this purpose.
11.   What are operators? List the types of operators used in QBASIC.
Answer: Operators are the special symbols or words that are used to perform various operations on open and or constants or variables. The types of operators in QBASIC are as follows:
a.       Arithmetic Operators.
b.      Logical Operators
c.       Relational Operators.
d.      String Operators.

12.   What are logical operators? List them.
Answer: The operators which are used to combine two or more relational expressions are called logical operators. They are as follows:
a.       AND
b.      OR
c.       NOT

13.   What is ment by syntax of programming language?
Answer:  The rules of writing valid program statements are called the syntax of programming language.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN


1.       Reserved word and user defined word?
Reserved word
User-defined Word
It is the predefined word or command which perform specific task in the program.
It is defined by the user according to their need in the program.
It can’t be used as the name of variables.
These are the variable and constant used in program.
2.       String data and numeric data.
String data
Numeric data
It consists of alphabetic as well as numeric values.
It consists of all number 0 to 9 that can be calculated mathematically.
It may be letter, word, number etc.
It can have decimal point also.

3.       Implict declaration and Explict declaration of variable
Implict declaration
Explict declaration
It specifies the data types that can store in that variable.
That variable is declared before it is used.

FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is statement? List any four QBASIC statements.
Answer: A statement is a set of instructions written using keyword to perform specific task. Four QBASIC statements are as follows:
a.       CLS statement
b.      Input statement
c.       Print statement
d.      Swap statement

2.       What is the use of comma and semicolon with print statement?
Answer: The comma gives space and semicolon doesn’t put space with print statement.
3.       What is the use of PRINT USING statements?
Answer: The use of print using statement is to display the output on the screen.
4.       What are input/out statements? Write with examples.
Answer: Input/out statement are used to provide input data as well as display output in the program. Example: Input, Print etc.
5.       Mention any two declaration statements.
Answer: The declaration statements are as follows:
a.       DIM
b.      REM

6.       Which statements are used to assign value to the variable?
Answer: Assignment statement are used to assign value to the variable.
7.       What is the use of LINE INPUT statement?
Answer: Line Input statement are used to input a line of data at a time and assigns that into a string variable.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is meant by control statements? List different types of control statements used in QBASIC.
Answer: The statements that cal alter flow of a sequence of instructions in the program is called control statement. Types of control statements used in QBASIC are as follows:
a.       Jumping statements
b.      Selection or conditional statement
c.       Looping statement

2.       What is jumping? Which statement is used for unconditional jump?
Answer: Jumping is the statement which is used to conditionally transfer the control from one point to another in the program.
3.       What is selection statement? List any two commonly used selection statements in QBASIC.
Answer: Selection statement is the statement that allows to test whether statements are true or false. Two commonly used selection statements in QBASIC are as follows:
a.       IF ………. THEN
b.      IF ……….. THEN …………. ELSE

4.       What is meant by looping? List the commonly used looping statements in QBASIC.
Answer: Looping is the statement that executes a statement or a block of statements several times in the program based on the condition. Commonly used looping statements in QBASIC are as follows:
a.       FOR ………. NEXT
b.      WHILE ……….. WEND
c.       DO LOOP

5.       What is nested loop?
Answer: The placing of one loop inside the body of another loop is called nested loop.
6.       What are counters and accumulators? Write with examples.
Answer: The variable used to count how many things that we have and how many times something is repeated are called counters.
The accumulators are variables used to total up a bunch of numbers. Example: Counter: CLS
7.       How to write LET statement? Write its syntax.
Answer: LET statement is used to assign a value to a variable.
Example: LET (variable name) = (Constants or Variables or Expression)
LET X = “Nepal”
LET A = 10
8.       What is restoring statement?
Answer: The RESTORE statement beings the pointer to the first value of the DATA statement regardless of the current position of the pointer.
9.       Define PRINT Statement.
Answer: The PRINT statement of QBASIC provides limited methods to controlling and alignment and spacing of printout in terminals.
10.   What is TAB function? Write the syntax.
Answer: TAB function enables the user to exercise exact control over the print positions.
Syntax: PRINT TAB (N); X
11.   Which statement is unconditional looping statement?
Answer: GOTO is unconditional looping statement.
12.   Which statement is called multi branching statement?
Answer: IF … THEN …. ELSEIF …. ELSE statement is multi branching statement.
13.   Define loop.
Answer: Loop is defined as the repeated execution of the statement that performs the work until the condition will satisfy.
14.   What is WHILE ……….. WEND loop.
Answer: The WHILE …. WEND commands continue a loop until a specified expression is false.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is function? Write its types.
Answer: Functions are pre-defined formula or programs that take some data, manipulate then and return a value, which can be string or numeric.
2.       Differentiate between library function and user defined function.
Answer:
Library function
User defined function
They are also knows as build-in function.
They are also known as customized functions.
They are pre-defined by BASIC interpreter.
They are defined by the use while programming.
Example: LEFT$, INT etc.
Example: DEF FN, FUNCTIONЕ END FUNCTION.
3.       Write any four advantages of using function in the program.
Answer: Four advantages of using function in the program are as follows:
a.       The function makes program writing easier.
b.      It reduces the size of program.
c.       It makes easy to find and correct mistakes.
d.      Same function can be used many times.

4.       What are mathematical functions? List any five mathematical functions used in QBASIC.
Answer: Mathematical functions are used to process the number data. Five mathematical functions used in QBASIC are as follows:
a.       SQR Function
b.      ABS Function
c.       INT Function
d.      CINT Function
e.      SGN Function

5.       What are string functions? List any five string functions used in QBASIC.
Answer: String functions are used to process the string data. Five string functions used in QBASIC are as follows:
a.       LEN Function
b.      LEFT$ Function
c.       RIGHT$ Function
d.      MID$ Function
e.      STRING$ Function

6.       What is library function?
Answer: Library function are also called as built in function which proved by the QBASIC System. These function allows the programmer to use them according to the requirement.

8.       What are the types of library function?
Answer: String library function and Mathematical functions are two types of library function.
9.       Define User Define Function.
Answer: It is written and stored by the programmer to do specific task FUNCTION ЕЕ. END FUNCTION statement can be used to define it.
10.   What is string library function?
Answer: String library function can be defined as set of alphanumeric characters. LEFT$, MID$, STR$ etc.
11.   What is the use of LEFT$ Function? Explain with example.
Answer: LEFT$ is used to extract the specific number of characters beginning from the left most character of the string.
12.   What is the use of VAL function?
Answer: VAL function is comment a string expression a consisting of digits in to a numeric value.
13.   What SQR function does?
Answer: SQR function refers the square root of any positive numbers.


FAQ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1.       What is array?
Answer: An array is the collection of similar data items that can be represented by a single variable name.
2.       What are the advantages of using array in the program?
Answer: Te advantages of using array in the program are as follows:
a.       An array reduces the number of variables in a program because a single array can save large number of data.
b.      Using arrays, we can access any data item efficiently just by specifying the index of that item.
c.       Array are simple to understand and use.

3.       What is single dimensional array?
Answer: The array having only one subscript is called one or single dimension array.
4.       What is multi dimensional array?
Answer: The array having more than one subscript is called two or multi dimension array.
5.       Write the use of OPTION BASE statement.
Answer: The OPTION BASE statement is used to define the lower bound value of an array.
6.       What do you mean by sorting array data?
Answer: Sorting is the process of arranging the data items in a prescribed order.
7.       What do you mean by searching array data?
Answer: Searching in array means the process of determining whether some value exists or not in the array.
8.       What is DIM statement?
Answer: DIM statement is used to declare an array variable in the program.
9.       Define sequential searching?
Answer: Sequential search will move from one item in an array to the next in search of something.
10.   What is binary searching of array?
Answer: Binary search will “split” an array in half during each “pass” or search, in order to determine which have contains the target.

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